He also found that Scorpio women are least likely to divorce Gemini and Pisces men. As for whom they are most likely to divorce, there was no statistically significant result for any sign. The higher-than-average rate of marriage between Scorpio and Pisces is an expected finding. Both can be extremely generous even to the point of self-sacrifice in love, and they often have hidden depths and a history of unusual experiences, which helps to maintain the interest of their partners.
Why do Scorpio men and Gemini women have a below-average marriage rate while Scorpio women less often divorce Gemini men? This is a mystery, as there is little common ground between these two signs, but perhaps the differences keep things exciting in some pairings. Scorpios do enjoy a challenge and Geminis can grow bored if things get too settled, so if these two do get married, they may have above-average sticking power.
The Castille study found that Scorpio women marry Scorpio men most often and Leos least often.
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As would be expected, Scorpio women gravitate to men of their own sign while Leo, considered one of the worst pairings for Scorpio, takes the last place on the list. These two strong-willed, dominant individuals who usually have little in common are bound to clash unless their ascendants or moons are in more mellow signs.
The best match for Scorpio appears to be s Pisces or another Scorpio, whereas Leo and Aries may be less auspicious matches in some cases. However, Scorpios who find themselves romantically entangled with one of the less compatible signs should not despair. Plenty of relationships and marriages between supposedly incompatible signs have lasted. For example, out of 6,, marriages encompassing all possible sign combinations in the Castille study, there were 1, more marriages between Scorpio women and Scorpio men than would be expected if sun signs had no effect, whereas between Scorpio women and Leo men, there were fewer marriages than would be expected if pairings were random.
However, there still were many marriages between the supposedly least compatible signs. Astrology is complex, and there is more to take into account than just sun signs. I have found no critiques of the Castille study thus far. For more on Scorpio, see the Scorpio Personality Profile. To see personality and marriage profiles for all the sun signs, visit the main Astrology page. Man dude I feel you in so many levels. Liking a sag man as a Scorpio is just the worst. Id have to agree, Sagittarius tends to be an absolutely awful pairing for a Scorpio.
And this is coming from a Scorpio with strong Sagittarius influence in my birth chart. The only exceptions being Sagittarians with elements in their birth charts that are well matched with your own. Get your birth charts checked for a good love compatibility before diving in. Or you may deeply regret it. I would say Pisces. For me a Scorpio woman , its a Taurus. I love how grounded and level headed they are as I am too but they are a little more than I am hah. They balance out my more emotional side. Just in my experience with multiple Taurus men.
My longest relationship was with a Pisces man but my favorite relationship and second longest was with a Taurus man. I still have some contact with the Pisces because we have a daughter together. One day, many years after we broke up, he consoled me during an argument I was having with our daughter. It was just sweet of him to do that and soothing at the right time so I remembered what drew me to him, in the beginning.
So it was fun and interesting while it lasted. And hopes to never date a scorpion again. I actually had my best relationship with a Sagittarius. We are still in a relationship and have lasted 3 years. They are just prone to cheating. Exactly, im a M scorpio and got a sag friend that dates 4 girls simultaneously. When i told him it was wrong and he should stay committed, he told me the reason why i said that was cuz i am jealous of him.
The relationship was very deep and we were in sync with one another. We had an open relationship which meant we could date other people but would still be with one another over weekends at some point. The problem with that arrangement was how deeply we fell Inlove with one another. Both wanted more with one another but our situations prohibits us from being together. The problem now is that 4 years ago we decided to just be friends. He got a girl pregnant and married her. We have the same friend circle so we see eachother so now and again. I wish he would just talk to me so I will feel at peace.
His also very shy just as I am so I will never know what his truely feeling. How do u get rid of the feeling that u are suppose to actually be with that person but your situation made u end up in other paths. Please keep in mind we never split over arguements or any Ill feelings towards one another. We just went our seperate ways because we both felt it was the best thing to do to avoid drama. I am a scorpio man.. My marriage is set with a Gemini woman…. Will it prove the biggest mistake of my life? I am married to a Gemini for lat 10 years and now I have realised that I was been used all along.
Its Very easy to be fooled by their sweet talks. For her I have always been someone who satisfies her financial need nothing more. I tried my best to make the relationship work but nothing makes her happy , she always complains tries to manipulate me. I trusted her completely gave her all my financial information bought apartment on her name , bought jewellery and now she wants all my money. The worst thing is I did not learn about her intentions till it was too late beacause of her sweet talks. My advice is end it while there is still time and never trust them on the face value.
I was with an Aries off and on for a decade. He was a narcissist and After a fight we had over his cheating.. I hope yours isnt as traumatizing as mine was. Overall I love Aries men.. We were more than just friends yet, i could never knew how does he feel for me. Actually he was never a stranger. He was mutual friend of hundred from my school. His simply friendly gesture hit me real hard after we had talked in social media.
And i had never seen him in person i had no idea how does he even look. I never took interest on him but slowly i started realising my love for him. At the beginning i thought that he liked me and it was him who took a step forward to move our friendship into something better. But we were never in a relationship. May be i have spent the best part of my life with him. After a couple of months he started behaving strangely, He just stopped replying my texts, started to ignoring me and saddest part was, it happened after a few days we first meet.
And i never knew the reason. Thanks x 14 LOL! Mar 25, 6. Sorry, but a Scorpio female marrying a Pisces male? Unless this Pisces has some other fiery placement to make them a more assertive person, a strong Scorpio woman can't handle a Pisces in the long run. Scorpio women want a man who can challenge them and Pisces men are too passive. Granted, the connection is out of this world, but Scorpio females are alpha which doesn't match the sensitive Pisces.
She'd eat him alive. I'd say, Scorpio women would go better with Leo, Gemini men because those people are target oriented, entertaining and alpha. Thanks x 23 Skeptical x 1. Mar 25, 7. Last edited: Mar 25, Thanks x Mar 25, 8. My husband and I are both Pisces-our birthdays are 2 days apart! Astrology is so interesting. Cool thread. Thanks x 4 LOL!
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Mar 25, 9. I'm a Cancer. My ex Taurus didn't wanna marry me after stringing me along for 3 years but my wonderful awesome Leo does so fuck him. Mar 25, Meh, once again based on sun sign But this Gemini man Taurus woman is interesting! My parents are Capricorn and Pisces. We the Romans , Seneca says, think that because clouds collide, lightning is emitted; they the Etruscans think the clouds collide so lightning will be emitted.
In this way, they say, the gods can send messages to humans about what is destined to happen. Sometimes visions of the future were read in bowls of water. Dodds speaks of this use of scrying, as it is sometimes called, for precognition. This is future-telling carried out by staring into a translucent or shining object, called a speculum, until a moving vision or hallucination is produced which seems to come from within the object. It is said that only a small proportion of people will be able to see such pictures.
In modern times, the process is best known as crystal-gazing, but it can be carried out with other objects besides crystals. Crystals don't seem to have been used as specula before Byzantine times, but the practice of scrying is much older. In one ancient method, a mirror was used as a speculum presumably this would guarantee pictures could be seen. Catoptromancy is divination using a mirror or other reflecting object. In another ancient method, used more frequently as time went on, the speculum was simply a bowl of water.
Sometimes a film of oil occasionally, flour was spread on the surface of the water. This method was known as lecanomancy, meaning "divination by bowl". The Greeks and Romans got this method from the Middle East, where it had a long history. It appears to have developed from a method in which events were foretold by spreading oil on water, and interpreting the moving shapes formed by the oil.
Evidently prolonged staring at the shapes led to visions in some seers, and eventually the visions in the seers became more important than the shapes in the oil. It was later realized that visions could be induced just by staring into the water, without the oil. However, the oil was sometimes still used, presumably because it was traditional or because it increased luminosity. The Greeks and Romans took up the practice in the 1 st century B. By this time, the use of oil seems to have been abandoned.
A more direct way to know the future is by means of revelation. Among the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians and others , this was often taken to happen in dreams. A god appeared in a "night vision" and sometimes clearly predicted the future or gave clear commands. Sometimes, though, the dream was mysterious, and had to be interpreted. Besides interpretation of dreams, there were methods of divination based on observations of the births of humans, sheep and other animals, especially abnormal and monstrous births. There were techniques based on observations of involuntary facial movements of people, and on physiognomy, the features of people's faces and skulls.
In another popular method, the diviner read the entrails of animals killed or sacrificed. With entrails in general, the method was known as extispicy or haruspicy, and with livers, hepatoscopy. Divination no doubt has its sources in basic features of animal behavior and learning. Specific expectations are linked to specific observations. Signs are recognized. Among humans, signs of future events or processes may be described with language, and transmitted from person to person.
The use of such signs can be very helpful in making decisions, and for overcoming indecisiveness. In favorable cases, such signs are always or at least frequently followed by the signified, and may indicate caused events. Occasional failures may be attributed to faulty observation or interpretation of the sign, to intervention of external powers, to chance, etc. A preponderance of failures may, or may not, lead to alteration in interpretation of the signs, or even abandonment of a project to use such signs for predictions and projections of future events. Certain decisions based on chance are a kind of limiting case of decisions based on signs.
Gamblers, for example, read thrown dice, flipped coins, dealt cards, etc. The signs in this case—the numbers on the dice, etc. A person who makes investments on the stock market according to hunches which are kinds of signs may or may not be gambling in the same way as people who play roulette, depending on the source of the hunches. If the hunches are based in some way, perhaps unconsciously, on actual economic trends, the investor's chances of profiting are customarily considered by many to be better than if they are not so based.
Inside traders those who use information about future financial transactions illegally read signs of a kind which reduces their chances of loss considerably—unless, perhaps, if they're caught at it.
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We can only conjecture about how many important political, military and business decisions have been made by flipping a coin or an equivalent, or—sometimes reducing the chances of failure to some degree—on the basis of probabilities drawn up by statisticians, engineers or managers. One motive for wanting to predict the future is the removal of anxiety, temporary though it may be.
It can be very consoling to decide one knows in advance what an outcome will be. Even if the decision proves to have been wrong, the previous peace of mind will not be taken away. Nancy Reagan, wife of the former U. Speaking of an astrologer she consulted, Joan Quigley, Nancy says: "Joan's recommendations had nothing to do with policy or politics—ever. Her advice was confined to timing—to Ronnie's schedule, and to what days were good or bad, especially with regard to his out-of-town trips. Was astrology one of the reasons? I don't really believe it was, but I don't really believe it wasn't.
But I do know this: it didn't hurt, and I'm not sorry I did it. One can, of course, have faith in signs of this sort without attributing religious significance to them. The gods use signs, clear or crypti c, to give orders and guidance to men. Among the classical Greeks and Romans, who had no written scriptures, signs were a principal way for gods to communicate with men. Thus among the Greeks, someone who doubted the efficacy of divination was liable to be suspected of impiety or godlessness. All of the Greek gods dispense signs, and especially the king of them all, Zeus.
The ability to interpret divine signs requires special inspiration, and this ability is dispensed by Apollo, the son of Zeus. Among the classical Greeks, a specialist in interpreting signs was a seer, a mantis, someone who makes contact with the gods. The word for god, theos, is closely related to the art of the seer. A seer is a theopropos, one able to sense—see or hear—the gods.
An uninterpreted sign is a thesphaton, a saying or command of the gods. What a seer performs is a theiazein or entheazein, an act inspired by the gods. In the Iliad, the seer Kalchas is the son of Thestor. In the Odyssey, the seer with second sight is Theoklymenos, and the tribe which guards the Oracle of the Dead in Epirus is called the Thesprotoi, those who see the gods, the see-ers of the gods. A seer may speak in an abnormal state 16 so a specially endowed interpreter of the words of a seer, a prop hetes, may be required. Thus the art of interpretation becomes a more or less rational technique, even when the words of the seer—hence of the gods—are cryptic.
Any abnormal occurrence which can't be manipulated could become a sign for the ancient seers: a dream, a sudden sneeze, a stumble, a twitch, a chance encounter, the sound of a name caught in passing, celestial phenomena such as lightning, comets, shooting stars, eclipses of sun or moon, even a drop of rain. We see here a kind of border zone between divination, and scientific psychology, meteorology and astronomy.
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The observation of the flight of birds played a special role in Greek prediction, perhaps from a prehistoric Indo-European tradition. In sacrifices, everything is a sign: whether the animal goes willingly to the altar and bleeds to death quickly; whether or not the fire flares swiftly, what happens when parts of the animal are burned in the fire; how the tail curls and the bladder bursts. The inspection of the livers of the victims developed into a special art. How the various lobes are formed and colored was evaluated at every stage of slaughter.
This technique appears to have been transmitted from Mesopotamia, probably in the 8 t h or 7th century B. There is an allusion to the practice by Homer. The Etruscans obtained their much more detailed haruspicina as these gut omens were called from the same source, not via the Greeks. The inspection of entrails was the prime task of the seers who accompanied armies into battle.
Herds of sacrificial victims were driven along with the armies, although the animals were also used for food. Without favorable signs no battle was joined. Before the battle of Plataea B. The philosophical question as to how omens, predetermination, and so-called freedom of the will can be reconciled began to be discussed extensively in Hellenistic times.
Earlier, one could always try to avoid the outcomes predicted by unfavorable signs by waiting and hoping the outcome would not occur after all, or by acting or not acting in ways which lead to circumvention, or by performing purification, or by praying, etc. But according to some astrological beliefs, outcomes necessarily follow their astrological signs, at least for events of some kinds. In other methods of prediction, it was frequently important that even favorable omens be accepted wi th an approving word or vow to the gods in order for them to achieve their fullest efficacy, but it was often believed that in the case of astrological signs, whether or not they were of divine origin, appeals were useless.
In classical Greece, seers or priests or priestesses, called oracles, were attached to particular localities where they could be asked to consult with the gods. The localities were also known as oracles, and cults were attached to them. The gods were especially disposed to give signs in these places.
Success in the interpretation of such signs led, from the 8 t h century B. The Greeks called a place of this kind a chresterion place where chresmos is performed, i. The Romans called such a place an oraculum. It appears that preservation of oracular utterances was one of the earliest applications of writing in Greece, starting about B. Thus the utterances were freed from the context of question and answer sessions with the gods, and could become important at other places at other times.
Age inspires respect, sometimes, so ancient sayings were collected in writing and thus were always more or less readily at hand. However, about the same time as actual sayings began to be recorded, forged sayings also appeared. Revelation is customarily considered to be the basis of Biblical prophecy, both in the sense in which prophets of the Bible predicted the future, and in the sense in which people up to our own time have interpreted the Bible as providing knowledge of their own futures.
It is always arresting to remember that the arch-scientist Sir Isaac Newton was a life -long student of biblical prophecy, and that his last work, published posthumously, was Observations on the Prophecies in Daniel and Revelation The kind of revelation which is at the root of biblical prophecy is often direct communication from an omniscient deity. It is only occasionally communicated in dreams. In general, no inspection and interpretation of natural events and no inferential reason ing are required.
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The content, nature and validity of biblical prophecy is, of course, a vast subject which we will not broach here. For some, the age of Biblical prophecy did not end with the prophets of the Old Testament and apostles of the New Test ament. For example, there was Nostradamus , who has played an extraordinary role in people's attempts to know the future. Richard Popkin reports that Nostradamus first asserted that he was a prophet in the Biblical sense, and that God had reveal ed future events to him, despite the fact that the prevailing view of the Church was that prophecy of this kind terminated with the death of the apostles.
He became a court physician, astrologer and advisor. At some point, says Richard Popkin, he abandoned his stance as a prophet in the biblical sense, and told his son that God had revealed future events to him by means of astronomical cycles, i. However, it seems that Nostradamus left no indication of the astrological techniques he used. We have only his completed predictions, in verse form, in his Centuries Among all the techniques devised by people to predict the future, the concentration here will be mainly on ones based on observations of celestial objects.
This includes what we now call astronomy and astrology. For many centuries the terms astronomy and astrology or their equivalents in various languages were widely used as synonyms. It has been suggested that astronomy originally referred merely to the connection of meteorological phenomena with the risings and settings of certain stars and constellations. An astronomer, in this sense, was someone who assigned individual stars or whole constellations roles in prognosticating or even determining weather, presumably on the basis of accumulated observations.
By the 5 t h century B. Socrates, according to Plato in his dialogue Theaetetus, defined astronomy as the discipline devoted to investigating the movements of the stars, including the sun and moon, and the relations of their speeds. This term did not find favor with the next generation, and Aristotle customarily used the term astrology astrologia where Plato and others had used astronomy astronomia. Aristotle's influence lent a long life span to this use of astrology. The development of astrology as understood in most present-day senses of the word led to a separate term for astronomy in our sense of the word: the term was mathematics mathematike.
This term in turn was in time usurped to apply to mathematics in our sense of the word. Near the end of antiquity, the circle closed. Once again astronomy astronomia came to denote, as it still does, people's scientific endeavors to find rational explanations for the nature and motions of the stars. But not until the 17 th century of our era did this readopted term come to definitely exclude astrology. Isidore of Seville c. The former, he says, is just another name for astronomy, while the latter "is that science which is practised by the mathematici, who read prophecies in the heavens, and who place the twelve constellations as rulers over the members of man's body and soul, and who predict the nativities and dispositions of men by the courses of the stars.
However, Laura Smoller reports that Isidore in his Etymologiae distinguishes between astronomia which deals with the motions of the heavens and astrologia which deals with their effects. But she goes on to say: "The neat distinction between the two words did not persist, however, and the terms were blurred, jumbled, and sometimes reversed throughout the Middle Ages. Presumably the reason she uses the quotation marks in to indicate that "astrology" and "astronomy" are here used in some present- day senses.
Lynn Thorndike reports that John of Salisbury 1 ? Thorndike doesn't translate, but I take these to mean magical art, mathematical art and sorcery, respectively Furthermore, John explains that the word mathesis, when it has a short "e", denotes learning in general, but when it has a long "e", it signifies the "figments of divination, whose varieties are many and diverse".
The Church Fathers, he says, rightly denounced all forms of magic—species mathematicae —inasmuch as all of these 26 pestiferous arts spring from an illicit pact with the devil. One is the abstract science in our sense of the word. Richard Lemay tells us that John of Salisbury also distinguished between the mathematicus, concerned with mathesis, and the physicus, concerned with the philosophy of nature.
The former, according to John, studies abstract figures extracted from nature, while the latter studies processes concretely embedded in nature. The mathematici are therefore concerned with stable, unchanging objects, while the physici depend on evidence of the senses. Both, however, try to discover the courses of nature, and the extent of their regularity or irregularity.
In John's view, physica had absorbed much of what had long been considered as the proper object of mathematica. In particular, foreknowledge of the future, formerly the concern of the mathematicus, he considered to have become a domain of the physicus. However, in making his distinction between mathematics and physics, John was embarassed by the ancient strictures placed on mathesis by the Church Fathers, because much that had been linked with mathesis had become the proper concern of aphysicus.
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Perhaps it is a matter of who was using the terms—philosophers natural or otherwise , poets, educated or uneducated people, etc. In any case, Peter himself sought to establish, against various theologians and scholastics who had distinguished between the two, that they were actually the same. Astrology, as formerly practiced, was intertwined with other methods of prediction, with various kinds of magic, and with alchemy. There were many links between astrology, magic, sorcery and witchcraft.
Astrology sometimes provided a coherent justification for such methods of prediction as geomancy, palmistry, physiognomy and similar activities. Cornelius Agrippa, author of a famous work on magic in the early 16 th century, declared that all these skills of divination are rooted and grounded upon astrology. Palmists and physiognomists, for example, assigned different parts of the hand or head to different signs of the zodiac according to correspondences postulated between heavenly bodies and earthly substances.
Geomancy was especially linked to astrology. The word geomancy is somewhat elastic in meaning, but in a narrow sense it is a method of divination in which a set of 16 patterns is obtained by getting someone a child, perhaps to draw lines in sand or on a slate or paper, or obtaining other presumably random outcomes, such as by spinning wheels in such a way that exactly two outcomes are possible, or flipping a coin, or grasping a number of beans and seeing whether there are an odd or even number, etc.
Each of the sixteen patterns consists of 4 choices of "even" and "odd" depending on whether the number of lines or beans drawn is even or odd, or whether the coin comes up head or tails, etc. Each of the 16 patterns is a house, and the set of patterns are interpreted according to various rules.
Geomancy, as customarily practiced, also employed the astrological hou ses, often taken to be 12 in number. Analogies were drawn between the astrological houses and the geomantic houses. According to a leading textbook of the time on the subject , geomancy was "none other than astrology". Some people still do associate some or all of these. Apparently it was born in Babylonia and reached an apex in the Hellenistic era.
Here Babylonia is taken to be synonymous with Chaldea and Mesopotamia, and to include lands occupied at various times by Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians and Iraqis. In Hellenistic times, Egypt, and especially Alexandria, was a renowned center for astrological and astronomical studies. In a narrow sense, the Hellenistic period ran roughly from the time of Alexander the Great B. This conquest culminated in the battle of Actium at which the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by the forces of Octavian.
North, Chaucer's Universe, , p. The first extant horoscope is said to date from B. However personal or judicial astrology, requiring the casting of individual horoscopes, developed later than omen astrology, the prediction of events involving kings and kingdoms on the basis of planetary positions and appearances, and on various meteorological phenomena. Personal astrology was based on investigation of planetary positions including the sun and moon at the time of birth or conception, and seems to have been founded on a thoroughly deterministic conception of the cosmos.
Side by side with it flourished catarchic astrology, which only assumed non-fatalistic influences on mundane enterprises like travel, marriage and business. Some have suggested that the two kinds of astrology, fatalistic and non -fatalistic, have conflicting bases. Either stars exert an immutable or merely an avoidable influence on affairs, although this distinction might not have been clearly made by individual users of astrology. However, it is not inconsistent to believe that stars exert an immutable influence on some affairs and not on others, nor even to believe that stars exert mutuable influences.
Although the origin of omen astrology is usually attributed to the ancient Babylonians,judicial personal, horoscopic astrology appears to have arisen in Egypt, during the Hellenistic era. This is what most people understand by the unmodified word "astrology" today. The originators of judicial astrology may actually have been Greeks living in Egypt, rather than native Egyptians whoever they might have been. Gundel have recorded numerous indications of the Egyptian origin of judicial astrology in Hellenistic texts, including numerous writings in the collection called the Hermetica, other writings in a handbook attributed to King Nechepso reigned B.
As to the Mesopotamians, the Gundels say: "The investigation of the sources leads to the result that for the Seleucid era in Mesopotamia [ B. The assertion that the 'Babylonians' had considered the grandiose idea of cosmic sympathies as the essence of astrology, and expressed this conception in systematic and technical works and books of oracles, must be regarded as a fantasy of later authors who do not attain real value as sources.
Decans are, roughly speaking, subdivisions of the zodiac, with 3 decans to a zodiac sign. According to Otto Neugebauer: "Before the fifth century B. In this latest and most significant modification astrology became known to the Greeks in the hellenistic period. But with the exception of some typical Mesopotamian relics the doctrine was changed in Greek hands to a universal system in which form alone it could spread all over the world.
Hence astrology in the modern sense of the term, with its vastly expanded set of "methods" is a truly Greek creation, in many respects parallel to the development of Christian theology a few centuries later. What was it that made fatalistic astrology-astronomy survive in the face of persistent onslaughts from the best minds of the Greek world? One answer, proposed by Frederick Cramer, is a faith which was as deep as the skepticism of their enemies—a faith in reason. They believed, like later scientists have, that the cosmos functions like a supremely well-designed machine constructed on rational principles and governed entirely by rational nature laws.
Certain philosophers of the Hellenistic era found in rational fatalism the faith in reason which scientists of all ages have hoped for: assurance that their concepts of the nature of things possess cosmic validity in space and time. Their logic seemed sound. That stars—for instance, the sun—have some powerful influence on people is unquestionable. Five other "stars" besides the sun and moon were known whose orbits wandered among the fixed stars—the five then-known planets of our solar system.
Weren't these also likely to influence mundane affairs? The zodiac can be used to trace the wandering of the sun among the other stars. Wasn't the zodiac therefore to be reckoned with? The fallibility of astrologers was in many cases obvious but instead of probing to see if the axiomatic foundations of astrology were at fault, many people were inclined to blame failures on human fallibility. Astrologers were compared to physicians. Who condemns medical science as a whole because a physician occasionally makes a wrong diagnosis, and fails to be able to cure all diseases? It may seem inconceivable to modern minds that highly cultured Greeks and Romans succumbed to the spell of what to some of us seems a monstrous web of truth and fiction.
Yet unless we try to place ourselves as best we can into the spirit of a given historical period, we cannot hope to understand it from a point of view which resembles to some extent how a person who lived during that period might have understood it. The two premises on which the fascination of astrology for many of the best minds of the time was based, according to Cramer, were these: 1 by the use of the proper techniques the future can be ascertained; 2 astrology alone is a truly scientific method for doing this.
Today many no longer subscribe to these tenets, but many still believe that anything rationally possible is at least theoretically attainable by scientific means. When condemning beliefs and actions of the ancient astrologers, one should in fairness remember their glowing faith in reason. Furthermore, today we can only work with what fragments of their writings or other material traces have survived up to our present times, and each of us must interpret such traces as we come in contact with according to our own lights, and must likewise interpret reports and interpretations of others more recent than the people of the historical period under consideration.
The stars move according to patterns, accessible to reason. Do our lives move according to patterns accessible to reason? Astrologers of all epochs have believed they do, and that the patterns of our lives and the patterns of the stars are related in some way. The underlying argument may be based on analogy. The gods, or God, rules the stars systematically, likewise he rules us.
And—a crucial assumption for astrologers—our movements and the movements of the stars—by which astrologers customarily meant the planets, taken to include the sun and moon— are somehow correlated, since they must obey the same commands or laws. From this point of view, astrologers may fail because they postulate over-simple relationships. As Einstein is reputed to have once said, everything should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler. The Stoics were prime supporters of astrology. Stoicism was one of the foremost philosophical doctrines of the Hellenistic era.
The Stoics as a whole tried to base their views on what they took to be the best physical science of their time, and they did a fair bit of theorizing about the nature of things. The physics of the Stoics has been viewed as a kind of deterministic thermodynamics. According to S. Sambursky, the cornerstone of Stoic physics is the concept of a continu um in all of its aspects.
Among the later Stoics, a revolutionary advance was made when the dynamic functions of fire and air were extended to cover all natural phenomena. The most significant quality of the pneuma is a kind of tension "by the force of which", Sambursky says, "it becomes an entity not altogether unlike the concept of a physical field in contemporary science". It appears, however, that the Stoics differed among themselves as to the constitution of nature. According to David Hahm, Zeno, one of the three heads of the heads of the Stoa in the 3 rd century B.
Here Zeno differs sharply from Aristotle, for whom fire or heat was the most active and important element in nature, but still only a tool that nature uses to accomplish its ends, and not nature itself. One of the other heads of the Stoa, Cleanthes, held a similar view, although he seems to have spoken of "vital heat" rather than fire as the substance that holds together the cosmos. Hahm, l. What for Aristotle is caused by soul, for Cleanthes is caused by the vital heat.
Finally, Chrysippus, the third of the heads of the Stoa, held the theory of pneuma which Sambursky refers to. The pneuma according to Chrysippus is a kind of mixture of fire and air, and it is what the "world-soul" is made out of—for the Stoics believed that the universe has a soul, albeit a material one. In Chrysippus' view, it is this pneuma which holds everything together. Some of the Stoics were as strict, or stricter, determinists than Laplace. Pierre Simon Laplace is a symbol of belief in the usefulness of Newton's laws of classical mechanics for predicting the future and retrodicting the past, on the basis that the future and past are completely determined, and completely describable by means of these laws.
According to Newton's prescription, this is to be done by setting up differential equations using his laws of motion, and solving them to find expressions from which quantitative predictions and retrodictions can be derived. In his works on celestial mechanics and theory of probabilities, Laplace asserts that all events, no matter how momentous or insignificant, follow certain mathematically formulable laws of nature just as surely, he says, as the revolutions of the planets follow from Newton's laws of motion and gravitation.
When people don't know what links events to the rest of the universe, they may attribute them to final causes, goals to which they tend, or to divine purpose, or to sheer chance. But, he says, these are only expressions of our ignorance of true causes. An event can't occur without a cause. We make choices only when we are caused to. Otherwise our choices would be the result of blind chance, which Laplace rejects. We should regard the present state of the world as the effect of its previous states, and the cause of its subsequent states. An intelligence who could know at a given instant values for all the forces or momenta which propel nature, and values for the positions of all the bodies in it, could enter these values into statements of the laws of mechanics and calculate future or past momenta and positions.
However much of nature is determined by forces and positions—Laplace evidently believed this to be all of nature—could be predicted or retrodicted in this way. However, Laplace says, the human mind offers only a weak idea of such an intelligence, as seen in the perfection which it has been able to bring to astronomy and mechanics.
By way of comparison, for the Stoics everything comes to pass in the world according to an unbroken causal connection, according to a law of fate, in which not even a god can change something. Aristotle thought there were two kinds of physics, one for the sublunary world, and one for the heavens.
Some hold that the Stoics invented astrophysics, in a manner of speaking, 41 Hahm, ibid. They believed that such laws determine everything that happens. Nevertheless, they maintained we are still free in the sense that we can always choose to accept what is going to happen as Fate and Nature decree, or not.
This constitutes living according to nature. Whether or not we do live according to Nature makes no difference to what happens. What is bound to happen will happen anyway. But how we choose makes a great difference to the quality of our lives. We can act in conflict with Nature, and suffer disappointment and pain and grief. Or we can walk with Fate, and achieve peace. Furthermore, according to the Stoics, since all things are constituted of one and the same stuff, and subject in every respect to the same laws, there is a kind of universal "cosmic sympathy" among things, which is what makes divination and astrology work.
Rackham says: "The Stoics The sole ultimate reality is the divine Mind, which expresses itself in the world-process. But only matter exists, for only matter can act and be acted upon; mind therefore is matter in its subtlest form, Fire or Breath or Aether. The primal fiery Spirit creates out of itself the world that we know, persists in it as its heat or soul or 'tension,' is the cause of all movement and all life, and ultimately by a universal conflagration will reabsorb the world into itself.
But there will be no pause: at once the process will begin again, unity will again pluralize itself, and all will repeat the same course as before. Existence goes on for ever in endlessly recurring cycles, following a fixed law or formula logos ; this law is Fate or Providence, ordained by God: the Stoics even said that the 'Logos' is God. And the universe is perfectly good: badness is only apparent, evil only means the necessary imperfection of the parts viewed separately from the whole.